Through the 1900s, technological developments steadily moved the work environment from physical labor to task orientation -- entering data, filing paper, or running machinery. Within the past decade, technological developments in electronics and communications have increasingly allowed task-oriented jobs to be automated or relocated to lower-cost countries. Coupled with constant industrial growth, these technological developments have brought about an increased need for workforce with new capabilities -- “knowledge workers.” In large measure, knowledge workers are paid to think and to act upon their thinking. The productivity of a knowledge worker is enhanced through empowerment, trust, accountability and other "soft" factors. However, the management models being taught in traditional business schools still relate to managing a task-oriented work environment (essentially, telling workers what to do). The neuroscience of leadership is at the frontier of investigation into the brain and the mind, providing significant insights into how best to teach leaders and managers to assist today's knowledge worker to improve thinking, fundamental for the effective practice management in today's economy.