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William Hedgcock
Associate Professor
Daniel E. McLean Research Fellow
Contact
319-335-0894
Office
W270 Pappajohn Business Building (PBB)
Academic history 
PhD in Marketing, University of Minnesota, 2008
BA in Economics and Psychology, Macalester College, 1996
Expertise 
Decision Neuroscience, Decision-Making, Decision Bias, Eye Tracking, Facial Expression Encoding, fMRI, Heart Rate/HRV, Loyalty Programs, MEG, Neuromarketing, Promotion Optimization, Skin Conductance.
Awards 
Stress and Decision-Making in Older Persons: Toward a Neurobehavioral Phenotype (Co-Investigator), National Institute on Aging (NIA), 2017
Consumer Neuroscience Pre-Conference Funding, Association For Consumer Research (Berlin), 2016
ICRU Fellow Funding - 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Summer and Academic year, University of Iowa, 2016
Listed by Iowa classes of 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 as a “person who had the most positive effect on their lives”, University of Iowa, 2016
Educational Excellence Grant, Tippie College of Business, 2015
Innovations in Teaching Award, Tippie College of Business, 2015
Innovations in Teaching with Technology Awards, Information Technology Services - University of Iowa, 2015
Early Career Research Award, Tippie College of Business, 2014
Nominated for ICRU Distinguished Mentor Award, Iowa Center for Research by Undergraduates , March 2014
Collegiate Teaching Award, Tippie College of Business, University of Iowa, 2012
McLean Faculty Research Fellow, Tippie College of Business, 2012
Instructional Improvement Awards 2008 and 2011, University of Iowa, 2011
Social Science Funding Award, University of Iowa, March 2009
Magnetic Resonance Research Pilot Funding, University of Iowa, December 2008
NSF Doctoral Dissertation Research Grant (#0647647), National Science Foundation, 2007
Fellow, AMA/Sheth Doctoral Consortium, August 2007
Center for Magnetic Resonance Research Pilot Funding, University of Minnesota, December 2005
Selected publications 

The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults. Bryan Koestner, William M. Hedgcock, Kameko Halfmann, Natalie Denburg, Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2016, vol 8, 1-8

Choosing to Choose: The Effects of Decoys and Prior Choice on Deferral. William M. Hedgcock, Raghunath Rao, Allan Chen, Management Science (forthcoming), Management Science, 2016, vol Online, 1-25

Thinking Concretely or Abstractly: The Influence of Fit between Goal Progress and Goal Construal on Subsequent Self-Regulation. Jooyoung Park, William M. Hedgcock, Journal of Consumer Psychology (forthcoming), Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2016, vol Online, 1-15

Individual Differences in the Neural Signature of Subjective Value Among Older Adults. Kameko Halfmann, William M. Hedgcock, Joe Kable, Natalie Denburg, Social, Cognitive, Affective Neuroscience, 2015, vol Online, 1-10

Clicking Their Way to Success: Using Student Response Systems as a Tool for Feedback. William M. Hedgcock, Robert M. Rouwenhorst, Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education, 2014, vol 22, 16-25

Functional Neuroimaging of the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults. Kameko Halfmann, William M. Hedgcock, Antoine Bechara, Natalie Denburg, Neuropsychology, 2014, vol 8, 870-880

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Failure of the Attraction Effect Among Unattractive Alternatives. Selin Malkoc, William M. Hedgcock, Steve Hoeffler, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2013, vol 23, 317-329

Age-Related Differences in Discounting Future Gains and Losses. Kameko Halfmann, William M. Hedgcock, Natalie Denburg, Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2013, vol 6, 42-54

Reducing Self-Control Depletion Effects through Enhanced Sensitivity to Implementation: Evidence from fMRI and Behavioral Studies. William M. Hedgcock, Kathleen Vohs, Akshay Rao, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2012, vol 22, 486-495

A Magnetoencephalography Study of Choice Bias. William M. Hedgcock, David A. Crowe, Arthur C. Leuthold, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos, Experimental Brain Research, 2010, vol 202, 121-127

Could Ralph Nader's Entrance and Exit Have Helped Al Gore? The Impact of Decoy Dynamics on Consumer Choice. William M. Hedgcock, Akshay Rao, Alan Chen, Journal of Marketing Research, 2009, vol 46, 330-343

Aristotle’s Anxiety: Choosing Among Methods to Study Choice. William M. Hedgcock, Akshay Rao, Journal of Marketing Research, 2009, vol 46, 14-24

Trade-off Aversion as an Explanation for the Attraction Effect: A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. William M. Hedgcock, Akshay Rao, Journal of Marketing Research, 2009, vol 46, 1-13

Sponsored research 

Stress and Decision-Making in Older Persons: Toward a Neurobehavioral Phenotype. William M. Hedgcock, Natalie Denburg (PI), National Institute on Aging (NIA) R56

An fMRI Study of Regulatory Resource Depletion and the Attraction Effect. William M. Hedgcock, National Science Foundation

A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of positive and negative decision framing in younger and older adults. Irwin P Levin, William M. Hedgcock, Natalie Denburg, Social Science Funding Program

Effectiveness of Clickers in Teaching Consumer Behavior. William M. Hedgcock, Concil on Teaching Instructional Approvement Award

Trade-off Aversion as an Explanation for the Attraction Effect: An fMRI Study. William M. Hedgcock, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research

Conference proceedings 

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Desirability Based Attenuation of the Attraction Effect. Selin Malkoc, William M. Hedgcock, Steve Hoeffler, Advances in Consumer Research, 2010, vol 38

Could Ralph Nader’s Exit Have Helped Al Gore?. William M. Hedgcock, Akshay Rao, Haipeng Chen, Advances in Consumer Research, 2008, vol 35

Valence Asymmetries in Preferences: The Case of Attraction Effect. William M. Hedgcock, Selin Malkoc, Steve Hoeffler, Advances in Consumer Research, 2008, vol 35

Brain Activation: Shedding Light on the Decoy Effect. William M. Hedgcock, Akshay Rao, Advances in Consumer Research, 2005, vol 33

Other work 

Age-Associated Executive Dysfunction, the Prefrontal Cortex, and Complex Decision-Making. Natalie Denburg, William M. Hedgcock, Aging and Decision-Making: Empirical and Applied Perspectives, 2015, 79-101

Behavioral and Neuroscience Methods for Studying Neuroeconomic Processes:
What We Can Learn from Framing Effects (V. Reyna & V. Zayes, eds.). Irwin P. Levin, Todd McElroy, Gary J. Gaeth, William M. Hedgcock, Natalie Denburg, invited Chapter for American Psychological Association Volume on the Neuroscience of Risky Decision Making, 2014

Studying Decision Processes through Behavioral and Neuroscience Analyses of Framing Effects. Irwin P. Levin, Todd McElroy, Gary J. Gaeth, William M. Hedgcock, Natalie Denburg, Daniel Tranel, Neuroeconomics, Judgment and Decision Making. Frontiers of Cognitive Psychology series, Psychology Press., 2014

Current and prior positions 
Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, Henry B. Tippie College of Business, The University of Iowa, July 2015 - Present
Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Henry B. Tippie College of Business, The University of Iowa, July 2008 - June 2015
Instructor / Research Assistant, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, June 2004 - 2008
Senior Analyst, Carlson Consumer Group, Carlson Companies, Minneapolis, MN, May 2000 - May 2002
Independent Consultant, Consumer Information, St. Paul, MN, June 1999 - May 2002
Analyst, DriSteem Humifier Company, Minneapolis, MN, June 1999 - April 2000
Business Analyst, Strategic Marketing Services, Carlson Marketing Group, Minneapolis, MN, August 1997 - June 1999
Project Manager/Analyst, Interpool Corporation, St. Paul, MN, April 1996 - September 1997
Review and editorial work 

Referee, Elsevier/Academic Press, 2014 - Current

Referee, National Science Foundation, 2013 - Current

Referee, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2013 - Current

Editorial Board Member, Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience, 2012 - Current

Referee, Marketing Science, 2011 - Current

Referee, MIS Quarterly, 2011 - Current

Referee, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2010 - Current

Referee, Journal of Marketing, 2010 - Current

Referee, Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2010 - Current

Referee, Journal of Consumer Research, 2009 - Current

Referee, Journal of Marketing Research, 2009 - Current

Referee, Association for Consumer Research Conference, 2008 - Current

Referee, Routledge – Business and Economics, 2016 - 2016

Referee, The MIT Press, 2015 - 2015

Referee, Journal of Economic Psychology, - 2009

Referee, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes , - 2009

Referee, American Marketing Association Winter Educator's Conference, - 2008

Presentations 

Neuromarketing in Retail. Corporate Training, Minneapolis, MN, 2016

Emotions in the Market. University of Iowa Tech Forum, University of Iowa Memorial Union, May 2016

Advancing Connections between Neuromarketing Academics and Industry (RoundTable). Association for Consumer Research, New Orleans, LA, 2015

I Believe This Is a Strong-Enough Attitude. Society for Consumer Psychology, Miami, FL, 2015

10 Years of Consumer Neuroscience: Progress, Challenges, and Promises. Association for Consumer Research, Baltimore, MD, 2014

The ‘Left-to-Right Effect’ of Product Location on Consumer Judgment. Association for Consumer Research, Baltimore, MD, 2014

Individual differences in temporal discounting among older adults: A functional MRI study. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, Boston, MA, April 2014

Self-Control Does a Body Good? Evidence From the Brain, Heart, Liver, and Behavior. Society for Personality and Social Psychology, New Orleans, LA, 2013

Focusing on Desirability vs. Feasibility: The Influence of Fit between Goal Progress and Construal Level on Subsequent Self-Regulation. Association for Consumer Research, Chicago, IL, October 2013

Scamming Depression Era Elders: Neuroanatomical Basis for Poor Decision Making Among Older Adults. Association for Consumer Research, Chicago, IL, October 2013

Strong Attitudes Without Elaboration: The Threshold Difference Effect. Association for Consumer Research, Chicago, IL, October 2013

Neurofunctional Differences Related to the Iowa Gambling Task in Healthy Older Adults. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, CA, April 2013

The Impact of Acute and Chronic Stress on Decision Making Among Older Adults. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, CA, April 2013

Temporal Discounting, Risk Aversion and Dental Decisions. National Oral Health Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, April 2013

Be Smarter and Fitter: The Influence of Perceived Goal Progress on Consumer Perception and Preference for Multifinal versus Unifinal Means. Society for Consumer Psychology, San Antonio, Texas, March 2013

Forward versus Backward Planning: The Fit between Chronological Order of Planning and Mindset Abstraction. Society for Consumer Psychology, San Antonio, Texas, March 2013

Temporal Discounting, Risk Aversion and Dental Decisions. 60th Annual Meeting of the Iowa Section of the American Association for Dental Research, Iowa City, IA, February 2013

Reading the Mind of the Consumer: Promises and Challenges of Predictive Methods in Consumer Neuroscience. Association for Consumer Research, Vancouver, BC, 2012

Risk and Attribute Framing: They’re Different. Association for Consumer Research, Vancouver, BC, 2012

Scamming Depression Era Elders: Neuroanatomical Basis for Poor Decision Making Among Older Adults., Iowa City, IA, 2012

Why Older Adults are Impaired on Some Decision-Making Tasks But Not Others - Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence. Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Minneapolis, MN, 2012

Regulatory Depletion and Why Decision Making Needs Brains., College Station, TX, September 2012

Regulatory Depletion and Why Decision Making Needs Brains., Columbus, OH, June 2012

Behavioral and Neural Differences between Risk and Attribute Framing. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, Chicago, IL, April 2012

Risk and Attribute Framing: They’re Different. Hightower Lecture Series, Atlanta, GA, April 2012

Risk and Attribute Framing: They're Different. Marketing Colloquium Distinguished Speaker, Ames, IA, February 2012

Temporal Distance and the Endowment Effect. Winter Conference Society for Consumer Psychology, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 2012

Age-related Differences in Discounting the Future. Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Washington, D.C, 2011

Fundamentals of Decision Neuroscience., Boston, MA, 2011

The Role of Emotional Processing in Risk and Attribute Framing. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Decision Neuroscience , Philadelphia, PA, 2011

Neural Correlates of Regulatory Depletion., Boston, MA, 2011

Differences in Risk and Attribute Framing. Neuroscience Research Day, Iowa City, IA, 2011

Neural Correlates of Diminished Self-Control. Society for Consumer Psychology, Atlanta, GA, 2011

Neuroscience, Marketing and Vulnerable Consumers: Integrative Approaches to Advancing Theory and Social Welfare. Association for Consumer Research, Jacksonville, FL, 2010

Decision Making in Older Adults. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Decision Neuroscience, Philadelphia, PA, 2010

Neuromarketing Theory and Practice. University of Iowa – MBA Career Academy, Iowa City, IA, 2010

Fundamentals of Decision Neuroscience., Austin, TX, April 2010

Brain Imaging of Preferential Choice., Edmonton, Alberta, 2009

Functional Imaging of Diminished Self-Control. Decision Neuroscience Workshop, Ann Arbor, MI, 2009

Functional Imaging of Diminished Self-Control. Marketing Science, Ann Arbor, MI, 2009

Neural Correlates of Decision Making., St. Paul, MN, 2009

Valence Asymmetries in Preference: The Case of Attraction Effect. Society for Consumer Psychology, San Diego, CA, 2009

Neural Correlates of Diminished Self-Control. Society for Neuroeconomics, Evanston, IL, 2009

Consumer Neuroscience, Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Direction. Association for Consumer Research, 2008

An MEG study of Neurological Difference in Decoy and Non-Decoy Choice Sets. Society for Judgment and Decision Making, 2008

Could Ralph Nader’s Exit Have Helped Al Gore? The Impact of Decoy Entry and Exit on Consumer Choice. Yale Center for Customer Insights, New Haven, CT, 2007

Contextual Effects on Choice: Behavioral and Neural Evidence of Decoys. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, CA, 2006

What’s on your Mind? Neuroscientific Approaches to Studying Consumer Choice. Association for Consumer Research, 2005

The Ralph Nader Effect: Decoy Disappearance and Attraction. Haring Symposium, Bloomington, IN, 2005

The Decoy Effect: Cognitive and Neural Evidence. Society for Judgment and Decision Making, 2005

The Ralph Nader Effect: Decoy Disappearance and Attraction. Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Minneapolis, MN, 2004

Committees and professional service 
Undergraduate Curriculum Committee (Marketing), 2013 - Current
University of Iowa Learning Space Advisory Committee, 2013 - Current
Neuroscience Program Student Advisory Committee, 2012 - Current
Marketing Department Subject Pool Coordinator, 2011 - Current
Neuroscience Publication Award Committee, 2012
Association for Consumer Research Program Committee, 2010 - 2012
Drafted proposal for Research and Creativity Strategic Initiative, 2009
Marketing Department Representative for AACSB accreditation, 2009